Tuesday, 21 July 2015

Islands of Coromandel's Eastern Seaboard NZ

Shoe and Slipper - looking  out to sea from Paku - Photo C R Ball 2015

Having visited another Island of the Pacific got me thinking about the islands where we live on Coromandel's  Eastern Seaboard. The stories passed down through several generations about these, often, rocky outcrops. Their place in the history of the Coromandel Peninsula, a relevant part of the past New Zealand history. First people to the shore - Maori - named them. Captain Cook arriving on New Zealand coasts in 1769 gave them English names. ( Often saying they reminded him of something at home). Some of those English names stuck and some have returned to their original name.
Whiritoa and Paku at Tairua are two of the few places where one gain a good view of most of the islands up and down the coast.  That is if one is on the shore and not out at sea.
These Islands have become a part of the past history of  the area with tales and stories passed down through families - memories of fishing trips, holidays at the beach, living on. The islands with the coastline are one of the first sightings Captain Cook had in  November 1769 when he made his way up to Te Whanganui-o-Hei - what has become  known as Mercury Bay  ( named such by Cook for the transit of Mercury observed by those of the ship Endeavour on 9th November 1769 ) 
In fact Cook   voyaging Northwards to Te Whanganui-o-Hei named a number of Islands on the way. One of the first of these was Whakaari which he named White Island - the reason, he wrote" because as such it always appear'd to us " (Wharton , 1893 ) Parkinson Banks' draughtsman recorded in his journal that Whakaari was " rocky, high and barren". ( Stanfield, ed.)

Whakaari - White Island in the Bay of Plenty
TAYLOR, Richard - M.A., Missionary in New Zealand. 1870. Image taken from page 275 of '[Te Ika a Maui, or, New Zealand and its Inhabitants ... Second edition, etc. London: British Library HMNTS 10491.dd.8." p 275.

Sometimes on a clear day from the shore one can see the smoke plumes  of  Whakaari (White Island )  down in the Bay of Plenty (Te Moana a Toi ). Very occasionally in the right place onshore, Whakaari can be seen. Hence including it in the islands of the Eastern Seaboard Coast.
On Whakaari looking towards Coromandel Peninsula -November 2015  photo courtesy Chris Ball
In 1914 one of New Zealand's worst Industrial disasters occurred when there was a landslide killing 10 men of the Sulphur Works which was on Whakaari then. The camp cat was a survivor. According to various accounts "Peter the Great" was found three weeks later. Reminders of Tarawera eruption and another cat at Te Wairoa that survived a disaster.

In 1936 George Raymond Buttle bought Whakaari and today the island remains privately owned by descendants of  George Buttle's  family. Whakaari is  a private scenic reserve ( on 3 December 1953) , a tourism venture with tours  by boat and helicopter to the island  and an active volcano.

Whakaari from the tour boat November 2015  photo courtesy Chris Ball
Most of the islands of the Eastern Seaboard are privately owned - Tuhua or Mayor Island administered by the Tuhua Trust Board. Tuhua is the Maori name for obsidian, thus describing aptly the Island for this dark volcanic glass that was here in quantities was sought after by Maori in pre European days for some sharpening tools and working with other tools.

Tuhua ( Mayor Island ) from Whiritoa - Photo C R Ball 2010
Mayor Island as it has become known ( a name Captain Cook gave the island  back in November 1769 when sheltering overnight on the North East corner) is home of the Mako Shark. According to Goldsmith  in a paper he read to the Auckland Institute in 1884 Mako " is found off this island and nowhere else in the world " ( Goldsmith 1884)
Today there is a Marine Reserve around the Northern end of Tuhua ( Mayor Island ).  The waters near Tuhua ( Mayor Island ) have became popular recreational fishing spots for  big Game Fishing - Tuna, Marlin and King fish, especially during the 1930's and  1940's.
WHEN THE FIGHT IS ON A striped marlin swordfish broaching in an endeavour to secure its freedom on t... [truncated] New Zealand Herald, Volume LXXII, Issue 22028, 7 February 1935, Page 8 courtesy Papers Past National Library NZ 

In past history, it was not just the game fishing that Tuhua ( Mayor island) was renown for.  Back in 1922 pioneer film maker Rudall Hayward, backed by a syndicate of 20, produced  the film " My Lady of the Cave. A newspaper serial, written by nearby Waihi School Master H T Gibson, was used. Mayor Island ( Tuhua ) was the scene of film shots for six weeks of filming out of seven. The film was said to be amongst stunning scenery and the film set in 1890's Bay of Plenty, a romantic drama. Camera man, Frank Stewart, was kept busy with even a  " shoot- out amongst moonshiners.'

  On up the Coast are reminders of volcanic activity in the rocky outcrops along the coastline. Northwards from Whiritoa is  Petley’s Rock – named for Mr. Petley, a Whangamata Fisherman of renown. Distinct craggy outcrops worn by the sea and storm  - known as the  “Pinnacles” –  grown up with, in sight from Otahu and Whangamata – reminders of what was the Tunaiti Caldera.

Looking towards Pinnacles from South Beach - photo C R Ball 1997

On up to South Beach Whangamata and the main surf beach  three Islands lying offshore from Whangamata – Hauturu (Clark Island) Whenuakura (called Doughnut Island sometimes because of its cave and hole near the middle), and Rawengaiti where it has been known to catch the odd strange fish nearby. These islands were once home of Tuatara, our quaint New Zealand lizards from prehistoric times - unfortunately in 2015 -gone.

Maukaha  Rocks, Whenuakura, Rawengaiti - photo C R Ball 2000

Hauturu ( Clark Island ) from Whangamata Peninsula - Photo C R Ball 2010

Lillian Clark , of Whangamata in the 1940's ,would have probably been the first conservationist of forest, seashore and beach life. A reminder to visiting holidaymakers to respect and not destroy. 

Government legislation records that Whenuakura, Rawengaiti Islands and Maukaha rocks lying to the northwest of Whenuakura Island were declared Wildlife Sanctuaries in 1976. This was the Wildlife Sanctuary (Whangamata Islands) Order 1976 and was declared sanctuaries because of the presence of Tuatara. This order was made pursuant to section 9 of the Wildlife Act 1953 and administered by the Wildlife Department of Internal Affairs - later Department of Conservation in April 1987.
Further up the coast from  Opoutere one can sight Hikunui Island near the Wharekawa Entrance, From Onemana, Opoutere, Ohui and Pauanui , one can sight Whakakau (Slipper Island) - home for many years of the Normans latterly of Opoutere and then the Needham family.  Both farmed this Island and there are memories of the barge to Tairua return used for supplies and livestock.
Whakahau ( Slipper Island ) Rabbit and Penguin  Whites Aviation photo 1959 J M Stewart photo collection
Also seen is Motuhoa (Shoe Island) which is at the Tairua River Entrance – the scene of the shipwreck of the cutter “Glance” in 1877. 

Motuhoa ( Shoe Island) from Main Surf Beach Tairua - photo C R Ball 2011
Looking back over history of Slipper Island many were the vessels and people that sheltered at Whakahau (Slipper Island) including the Tauranga Rugby Team aboard s s Fingal in 1907 - on their way to a rugby match against the Mercury Bay team at Whitianga.

Whakahau ( Slipper )- view through pines on main beach Pauanui - C R Ball 2014

From early European settlement days   waters around Whakahau (Slipper)  had gained a reputation for good fishing grounds. However fishing also had its dangerous moments as was reported in 1936. The Auckland Star reported on a fisherman's injury in 1936:- 

"  As the result of a fight with a shark which had a large hook fastened in its tail Mr. William Clarkson, a fisherman, of Whangamata, suffered a severe injury to his left hand on Sunday morning when fishing off Slipper Island, near Whangamata. When the shark was hooked it put up a lively fight and it was some time before it was brought alongside the boat. Mr, Clarkson then attempted th seize the struggling fish by the tail, but was astonished when he found that his left hand, between the thumb and the first finger, had been penetrated by a hook which evidently at some time had become fastened in the shark's tail"   ( Auckland Star, 6 /10/ 1936, P 11)

My own memories of  my father aboard Clio in  Eastern Seaboard Waters are the damage sharks did to the nets which had to be constantly repaired. Other memories are of a white pointer shark in the  Channel between Rabbit and Penguin Island. That was back in the late 1970's just after the movie Jaws had been released. Don't think the one at Whakahau ( Slipper), was as big as the 35 foot Great White Shark of the movie, however it did give moments of disquiet.  The Slipper Island version was real - not the robotic version of the movie which 40 years later still remains terrifying.

Looking further out to sea in the distance are the Aldermen Islands - a wildlife sanctuary since 1933. Named by Captain Cook in 1769 because their rocky caps reminded him of a court of Aldermen. Captain Cook having sheltered overnight at what he named Mayor ( Tuhua ) on heading up the coast wrote :-
" The Cluster of Islands and Rocks just mentioned we named the Court of Aldermen; they lay in the Compass of about half a League every way, and 5 Leagues from the Main, between which and them lay other Islands. The most of them are barren rocks, and of these there is a very great Variety, some of them are of as small a Compass as the Monument in London, and Spire up to a much greater height; they lay in the Latitude of 36 degrees 57 minutes, and some of them are inhabited. "  ( Wharton 1893)
Looking out to the Aldermen islands from Opoutere/ Pauanui Forestry Road - photo courtesy Sam Ball  August  2015

Within this group is seen Hongiora (Flat Island) home breeding ground of grey faced petrel – sometimes washed up on our beaches in storms. Also the rocky caps of Ruamahuaiti, Middle and Ruamahuanui Islands. In 1933 the area was declared to be a bird sanctuary.

ISLANDS OFF THE COROMANDEL PENINSULA TO BE OBTAINED FOR A BIRD SANCTUARY A deep-sea fishing launch p... [truncated] New Zealand Herald, Volume LXX, Issue 21422, 21 February 1933, P 6 courtesy Papers Past National Library NZ 
Yes we are fortunate to have these Islands of Coromandel's Eastern Seaboard, with their tales of flora, fauna and people through the years - a part of past New Zealand history.

Reference Source:
  •  Ed. Captain W.J.L. Wharton R.N., F.R.S. 1893. CAPTAIN COOK'S JOURNAL DURING HIS FIRST VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD MADE IN H.M. BARK ""ENDEAVOUR" 1768-71 A Literal Transcription of the Original MSS. London: Elliot Stock, 62 Paternoster Row. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/8106/8106-h/8106-h.htm
  • Parkinson, Ed. Stanfield. n.d. A Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas in his Majesty’s Ship, The Endeavour .Faithfully transcribed from the Papers of the late SYDNEY PARKINSON,. London: Paternoster Row. http://southseas.nla.gov.au/journals/parkinson/141.html
  • Taylor, Richard - M.A., Missionary in New Zealand. 1870. Image taken from page 275 of '[Te Ika a Maui, or, New Zealand and its Inhabitants ... Second edition, etc. London: British Library HMNTS 10491.dd.8." p 275. FLIKR
  • Grenfell, Hugh. 'The 1914 White Island/Whakaari mining disaster'. Auckland War Memorial Museum - Tāmaki Paenga Hira. First published: 20 May 2015. Updated: 16 June 2015.URL: www.aucklandmuseum.com/collections-research/collections/topics/the-1914-white-island-whakaari-mining-disaster
  • Transactions & Proceedings NZ Institute ( Royal Society ) Art. LIII.—Description of Mayor Island[Read before the Auckland Institute, 11th August, 1884.] By E. C. Gold-Smith District Surveyor, Tauranga., from Volume 17, 1884
  • The Film Archive - My Lady of the Cave
  • WHEN THE FIGHT IS ON A striped marlin swordfish broaching in an endeavour to secure its freedom on t... [truncated] New Zealand Herald, 7 February 1935, Page 8
  • FIGHT WITH SHARK. Auckland Star,  6 October 1936, Page 11 
  • ISLANDS OFF THE COROMANDEL PENINSULA TO BE OBTAINED FOR A BIRD SANCTUARY A deep-sea fishing launch p... [truncated] New Zealand Herald, , 21 February 1933, Page 6

Wednesday, 15 July 2015

From Disaster - One of First Pieces Safety Legislation in NZ

Sign indicating Site of Kuranui Battery - photo C R Ball 2010
Currently in New Zealand, the Health and Safety Reform Bill,   introduced in June 2015,   is being tracked through Parliament . One of the contributing reasons for this reform was the Pike River Coal Mine Tragedy of 2010. Another piece of Health and Safety Legislation - 140 + years after one of the first legislation pieces introduced in NZ. Then it  was the outcome of another mining disaster -  on the not long opened Thames Goldfields. Campbell in 1987  was to write the following:
“However in 1874 the Inspection of Machinery Act was passed, it no doubt stimulated by a fatal boiler explosion that had occurred on the Thames gold field”. (Campbell, 1987, p.13)
This was what came to be known as the Kuranui Boiler disaster which occurred at the Kuranui Company in one of the battery machines. The Kuranui Battery was close to the Shotover Mine - this Mine famous for the first major official discovery of gold on the Thames Goldfields. Both mining sites were close to the shoreline. 
The Shotover on Kuranui or Shotover Creek - Photo in
Grainger, John Thomas. The Amazing Thames. The story of the town and the famous goldfield from which it grew. Wellington: A.H. & A.W. Reed, 1951.

According to the Thames Miners Guide, one of the first crushing machine's was purchased, it was said , for £1500 from the firm of Fraser & Tinne by the Kuranui Company and erected in those early Thames Goldfields Days about November 1867. The Thames Miner's Guide wrote outlining Machinery on the Thames Goldfields: -
Kurunui Battery (late Fraser and Tinne's) of six stampers, and a one stamper specimen battery with Berdans at the end of tables to grind the tailings. The battery has three stampers in each box, double cams, quicksilver placed in battery boxes, grating perpendicular, with round holes. The copper-plate tables are about 12ft. long by 5ft. wide, and raised about 14in. above the blanket boards; a slide dividing them is raised about l 1/2 in. at the bottom. The blankets extend about 10ft. They appear to be ordinary grey blankets of a very inferior description. There is no appliance for saving the tailings, the sluice being only 10ft. long, terminated by a small tub. There are no amalgamators connected with this battery. The engine is powerful, and reflects credit upon the engineers, Messrs. Fraser & Tinne. Nevertheless, there is room for much improvement, to render the saving of the finer particles of gold complete." ( Thames Miners Guide, 1868) 
 The diagrams below shows what two stampers used to crush quartz rock looked like.

Stamp Mills in  Johnson, J.C.F. Getting Gold A Gold-Mining Handbook for Practical Men. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/43027/43027-h/43027-h.htm, 2013.

The disaster occurred on 24 January 1874, causing the serious loss of three lives. The Daily Southern Cross, after the accident, and after some of the evidence given in the inquest reported
 “The cause of the accident is briefly this, so, far, as it can be understood: The boiler had 'been repaired and cleaved about a week ago, land has only been at work five days. It was discovered today that a thick coating of saline deposit had crusted the iron in the crown of the boiler to a thickness of half an inch. This prevented the water from coming in contact with the iron, consequently the latter became red hot over the furnace, and owing to the pressure of the steam it collapsed, as much as the tension of the iron allowed, but when the utmost extent of its expansion - was" reached the iron rent along the seam." The consequence was that the steam and water together burst into the furnace and rushed through the flues, carrying death to the poor fellows.”( DSC 26/01/1874, p.3)

The three lives lost were those of Alfred Cook, Amalgamator, Kuranui Company. Richard Watson, crushing supervisor, Queen of Beauty Company. Matthew Paul, crushing supervisor, Crown Prince Company. In the aftermath of the disaster, the inquest with recommendations at its conclusion and concern for the safety of machinery on goldfields, rose in several quarters before, there were calls for action. Amongst these was that of Mr. John Sheehan, MHR.  The Wellington Independent reported that a Royal Commission appointed would be appointed to investigate the accident causes and to make recommendations. (Wellington Independent, 11/02/1874, p 2)
 Members appointed to the Royal Commission were Joseph Nancarrow, James Stewart and Charles O’Neill. All three had both practical and technical knowledge of boilers and steam machinery, Nancarrow being Colonial Chief Inspector Steamers and Stewart Inspector of Steamers Auckland – both with the then Marine Department. O’Neill formerly mining surveyor for the Thames goldfield and engineer-in-chief of railways, tramways and wharves and elected MHR representing Thames 1871 – 1875. 
Two of the Members  Appointed to the Royal Commission
By mid - March the work of the Commission had begun with the Daily Southern Cross reporting the official opening of the Royal Commission , Charles O’Neill Chairman of the Commission.
In what could be said to be a relatively short time for reports of this nature to emerge, the Daily Southern Cross in July 1874 (four months later) reported the result of “The Steam Boiler Commission” writing:-

“The Kurunui Boiler Accident Commission, in an elaborate report, say they are of opinion that such accidents can be prevented by a carefully revised and well balanced enactment. The Board of Trade system of marine inspection and tests for engineers they consider unsuitable. Rules for the examination ought to possess an elasticity which would be respectfully applicable to the goldfields as inapplicable to the Marine Engineer tests should be based on the nature of the work they have to perform.” (DSC, 04/07/1874, p 3) 
In the  Royal Commission Report to both Assemblies of the house the Commission's members concluded:-

"All the evidence points to sufficient water being in the boiler, and there is no reason for doubt on this point. The incrustation, then, we are assured, was the immediate cause of the collapse; and we have as little doubt that the incrustation was only the effect of undue saltness of the water in the boiler. This even those in immediate charge admit, although they state that they are unable to account for it. But the fact is incontestable, in our opinion ; and a careful study of the evidence, and an actual testing of the salinometer in use, together with calculations relating to the evaporation, feed, and blow-off of the boiler, lead, not to wonder that the salting took place, but to astonishment that it did not work its effect long ago." ( AJHR 1874 I, H-06)

Outlined also in the report  were recommendations for an Inspectorate system - their skills base, personal character qualities and work procedures in the field - duties.  By September 1874 the Inspection of Machinery Act was passed, providing one of the first pieces of New Zealand Occupational Health and Safety Legislation. The Star reported on the new Machinery Act.
“The Inspection of Machinery Bill passed through the Assembly during its last session is a valuable measure, supplying, as it does, a want that had for a long time/existed. The Act is in five principal parts. (Star, 04/09/1874, p 2)

The first Inspection of Machinery Act 1874 while it covered other “land based “did not cover steamers and their machinery. This was covered by the already implemented Steam Navigation Act, 1866, administered by the Marine Department and their Inspectors of Steamers. A role that both Nancarrow and Stewart had been undertaking for the Marine Department since this act’s inception. Likewise engines or machinery under Government Railway control were also exempt. There was also an innovative provision that prohibited children under the age of 10 to work with or assist with the running of machinery.

 The passing of the Machinery Act 1874 was followed shortly after by the Regulation and Inspection of Mines Act which also carried provisions for safety. By December the first Chief Inspector of Machinery for the colony was appointed. This was Joseph Nancarrow. 
Into 1875 Thames goldfields saw the Machinery Act 1874 in place – and even though there were detractors, this was a first step in health and safety in the workplace and towards prevention of likes of a recurrence of such as the “Kuranui Boiler Disaster.”
Reference Sources: